Diseases Starting with C

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Calcaneal Spur

Patients complaining pain in one of the heels or back of the foot, often returns from the doctor’s office with a diagnosis of Calcaneal spur.
The technical name for heel bone is Calcaneus, which is one of the foot bones. Spur means a bony projection. (Spur has different meanings.)
When there is a bony projection of the heel bone (Calcaneal spur), the patient will face difficultly with movements. This disease is more frequently observed in females.

The symptoms arise due to friction of spur with the bone and other soft tissues. There will be poky or stitching pain. The pain can be very severe for many. The pain could be severer. Most patients may present with pain while initial making steps, especially while getting up from bed in the morning. The friction leads to inflammation or swelling.

Causes of Calcaneal Spur (Heel Pain):
The exact cause is not known.
Investigations and diagnosis:
X-ray will show the bony Calcaneal spur very clearly. Plantar fascistic is a related condition.

It is a bony projection is a mechanical problem, which may require surgical removal if it is very large and if the symptoms do not reduce with medicines. Avoidance of wearing high heels is recommend in all cases. Conventionally, the patients are treated with pain killers or periodical injection of cortisone in the affected region.
Homeopathic Treatment for Calcaneal Spur:
There are some effective homeopathic medicines prescribed on the basis of exact case analysis. The selection of such a medicine could not be easy; may best be done by a experienced homeopath, after evaluating the x-ray. Homeopathy can offer excellent relief in pain in many cases. However, it cannot reverse the bony growth. The patient may have to take medicine periodically. Radiological cure may not be achieved. Homeopathy offers excellent results in Calcaneal spur and it is very strongly recommended.


A carbuncle is a skin infection presenting with multiple boils on the skin. It can occur any where in the body caused due to bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. Carbuncles are commonly seen around the nape of neck and the back.
It presents with painful boils discharging pus and necrotic (dead cells) material involving the skin and deeper tissue.
The infection is contagious and may spread to other areas of the body or other people.
Most patients are adults with poorly controlled diabetes.
It is more commonly seen in males than females.
Not seen in children.
There is no exact cause at to why does one get bacterial infection leading to Carbuncle. However persons with diabetes and weakened immunity are more prone to develop a carbuncle.
Carbuncle can increase due to shaving and poor hygienic conditions.
Nape of the neck is the classic and most common site.
Trunk and proximal extremities are affected less commonly.
Other Sites being: Back, Shoulder, Cheek, Upper Lip, Dorsum of Finger.
Signs and Symptoms:
Fever and enlarged Lymph nodes may be present in some cases.
Skin becomes red and swollen.
Carbuncle presents with pus filled boils (mass), dead tissue, which spread rapidly.
Subsequently central part softens, multiple vesicles appear on skin which transforms into pustules which my burst or coalesce to form an ulcer.
Burning pain and severe itching in and around the site of carbuncle is the most distressing symptom.
Mostly diagnosed clinically by expert eyes.
Biopsy may be required to confirm the diagnosis.
Blood sugar levels must be checked to rule out Diabetes.
Conventional treatment:
Anti bacterial soap found to be effective in control of infection to the other parts of the body.
A course of Antibiotic should be completed.

Homeopathic management:
Carbuncle finds an excellent treatment with homeopathy. Most cases heal and antibiotics can be avoided.
The duration of treatment for Carbuncle:
Most patients show significant improvement in about five to six weeks. The full length of treatment is usually for about four months. Some patients may need longer course of medication. It is possible to avoid antibiotic in most cases, if timely homeopathic treatment is used.
Spread of infection to other areas
Permanent scarring of the skin
Abscess of the brain, skin, spinal cord, or organs such as the kidneys.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a common condition which causes pain and weakness in the muscles of the hand.

There is a small tunnel shaped structure in our wrist joint which houses a nerve called the median nerve. This particular nerve is very important for functions and sensations of the muscles of the palm. Any increase in the contents of the carpal tunnel or decrease in the size of the tunnel itself can compress the nerve as it passes through the tunnel from the hand into the palm.

Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
The exact of CTS is unknown though certain medical and occupational conditions can increase risks.
repetitive stress (like interminable hours over a key-board!)
oral contraceptive pills,
under active thyroid functions,
rheumatoid arthritis,
cardiac failure,
trauma and fracture of wrist bone (lunate)
premenstrual stress.
Other factors which increase the likelihood of CTS are:
CTS affecting any family member.
Occupations (assembly line workers, meat packers, food processors, and the like, not general office work),
Age (40)

Symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Sensation of numbness and tingling especially of the thumb, index and middle fingers.
In early stages this sensation is more like having your hands simply “falling asleep” (in fact, only pain with absence of this sensation makes this diagnosis unlikely!!).
With intense pain, relief is obtained by characteristically flicking or shaking the wrist
Weakness of the muscles of the palm
Difficulty in making a fist
Tendency to drop things easily
Grasping objects becomes very difficult
Person tends to become clumsy
Later on, there is visible wasting of the muscles of the palm.
Commonly, the symptoms appear at night because many people sleep with bent wrists which further compresses the carpal tunnel. Simple flexing of the hand at the wrist to 90 degrees causes considerable reduction in the tunnel size.

Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Your doctor can can diagnose this condition in the clinic (PHALEN’S TEST, TINEL’S TEST).
In few cases of suspicion these investigations may be used
Nerve conduction studies

Prevention of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
The most effective way to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome is to take frequent breaks from repetitive movement such as computer keyboard usage as well as treating the precipitating conditions (diabetes, hypothyroidism etc.)
Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Lifestyle Modifications

Decrease excessive consumption of:
processed grains and corn
protein intake
foods containing yellow dyes
oral contraceptives, post-menopausal drugs
radiation exposure
Have more of these in your diet.
whole grains
nuts (peanuts, walnuts)
fresh salmon and cod (cold-water, non-farmed)
brewer’s yeast
wheat bran and [wheat] germ etc.
Avocadoes, bananas, prunes, blueberries
green leafy vegetables
It is also recommended to make efforts in adopting a more ergonomic work and life environment.
Conservative management
Wrist splints worn at night.
Carpal injections (hydrocortisone acetate)
Painkillers (NSAIDS)
Ultrasound therapy.
Surgical repair
Decompress the nerve by dissecting the flexor retinaculum (tendon sheath of the muscles of the hand which form the roof of the carpal tunnel).
Surgical corrections reportedly have 54-60% success rates eventually end up requiring additional surgeries (in 10% cases).

Homeopathic treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Homeopathy can be considered a good alternative to the use of steroid in most cases. It is recommended to start with homeopathy before option for cortisone.
It can offers great control in pain and stiffness, providing a substitute to pain killers. Homeopathic medicines are safe and do not have side effects what the NSAIDS have.
There are no side-effects to homeopathic treatment.
Timely homeopathic treatment can prevent the use of surgery.


Cataract is development of haziness in the vision either partial or complete which gradually increases overtime. Cataract affects the lens of the eye and prevents light from penetrating hence obstructing vision.

Diabetes and hypertension of long duration
Ultraviolet light e.g.: pilots are more prone to the disease as they fly at high altitudes continuously
Infra-red radiation e.g..: glassblowers are exposed to infra-red radiation by virtue of their occupation
Trauma to the eye

Loss of clear vision and haloes around street lights at night. In early stages only haloes around lights at night are visible. The symptoms gradually advance causing loss of clear vision finally leading to blindness.

Research has proven that statins given to patients at risk for age related nuclear cataracts (central) delay the process of cataract formation. Anti-oxidant use has not been proven to delay the process of cataract formation.

Extra capsular Lens Extraction: In this procedure the lens is removed and the capsule is left intact. The process is completely safe.
Constitutional homeopathic treatment can delay the formation of cataract in high risk patients like pilots, glassblowers and the aged.
Homeopathy has no role to play in treatment of cataract. Over the counter homeopathic eye drops available in the market do not do any good and lengthen the process of cataract maturation causing further problem to the patient for a longer duration. Homeopathy is not recommended in the cases of cataract.


Cellulitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the connective tissue of the skin, caused by infection with a type of bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus or other bacteria).
Cellulitis frequently occurs on exposed areas of the body such as the arms, legs, and face. It is characterized by redness, swelling, warmth and pain or tenderness.
The swelling can spread rapidly.

Cellulitis occurs when the bacteria enter through a break in the skin. This break need not be visible to the naked eyes. Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are the most common bacteria which can cause cellulitis. Predisposing factors for cellulitis include insect bites, animal bites, itchy (pruritic) skin rash, recent surgery, athlete’s foot, dry skin, eczema, burns and boils, lymphedema swelling, diabetes, patients on immunosuppressive or corticosteroid medications, etc.

The affected area is red due to the inflammation and there may be warmth over it. Tight, glossy, “stretched” appearance of the skin is commonly seen. Pain or tenderness of the affected area is also seen. Other symptoms that may be seen include fever (with or without chills), sweating, fatigue, muscle pains (myalgia) and malaise. Occasionally, local lymph nodes may be swollen.
Self care for Cellulitis patients:
Rest the affected part of the body Elevate the infected area to decrease the swelling and to relieve the discomfort.

Suggestion about homeopathic treatment:
Homeopathy can effectively manage cases of cellulitis. The skin swelling, redness and pain can very well be treated with homeopathy. Not only does homeopathy successfully manage acute cellulitis but it also helps in preventing the recurrent attacks in cases where this tendency is present. Local care of the affected part combined with homeopathic treatment can ensure good recovery of cellulitis.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) generally refers to a disorder in which there is severe and persistent tiredness, which is not relieved by rest.
As the name suggests, it is a state of chronic fatigue that exists without any cause for more than six months and is accompanied by difficulties in short-term memory and/or concentration.
Chronic fatigue syndrome affects approximately ten people among thousands of people.
This condition occurs most commonly in young to middle-aged adults. It occurs more commonly in females than in males.

Causes of CFS:
Though the exact cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unidentified some theories suggest CFS may be due to some viral infection or due to altered immune system.

Symptoms of CFS:
Generally the symptoms of CFS are similar to those of the flu and other common viral infections, which include
Extreme fatigue. A new onset of unexplained, continual fatigue which is unrelated to exertion and not significantly relieved by rest, which also causes a considerable reduction in previous activity levels.
Muscle Pain.
Pain in multiple joints.
Impaired short-term memory or concentration.
Extreme and prolonged exhaustion after physical or mental exertions.
Not refreshing sleep.

Diagnosis of CFS:
There are no specific laboratory tests for the diagnosis of CFS, The clinical finding and symptomatology often help to diagnose and exclude the possibilities of other diseases.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Homeopathy
Chronic fatigue syndrome can be effectively treated with homeopathy.
The medicines are selected in homeopathy on the basis of patients individual symptoms pertaining to fatigue, the factors leading to it such as exertion, body position, time of the day; besides the emotional factors, food habits, as well as the preceding ailment such as some viral infection, etc.
As many people with CFS have depression and other psychological disorders that may improve with the constitutional and holistic individualistic approach of homoeopathic treatment.
Combined action of constitutional Homoeopathy Treatment and some simple but effective process like Sleep management techniques, light exercise; healthy diet can give a very good and effective result in treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Coeliac Disease

Coeliac Disease (or celiac) disease is a disease of small intestines. This is a disease of immune system that affects the absorption of essential nutrients from the small intestines. The small intestines abnormally react to gluten (certain type of proteins) and produce the symptoms. Gluten is a protein that may potentially lead to problems such as Coeliac disease, dermatitis, autism, IBS, eczema, etc.
It is a disorder of small intestine in which a person has an immune reaction to eating Gluten. The delicate linings of the small intestines get damaged in response to the reaction of gluten, which lead to the symptoms.
Gluten is a protein found mainly in wheat, barley, oat and rye. Gluten is found in any food prepared from such cereals, including pasta, cakes, cereals, most types of breads, biscuits and certain types of sauces. It may be noted that wheat allergy and Coeliac disease (due to gluten hypersensitive) are two different conditions.
Most beers, which are made from barley, so they contain gluten.
As per a study, one in about every 1700 persons suffers with Coeliac disease. While, estimated 1% population in the US and the UK suffer with gluten sensitivity. This disease is observed in infants, children as well as adults; in males as well as females. It seems that the actual figures of people suffering with Coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity may be much more. It is interesting to note that the gluten-free products market in 2010 was $2.5 billion, which indicates the incidence of this disease group.

Since the linings of the small intestines get damages in response to gluten allergy, the inflamed intestines produce symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating of abdomen. Also, there is lack of absorption of essential components such as vitamins, minerals, which leads to loss of weight, lethargic feeling and other related symptoms.
Some babies may show skin rash due to gluten sensitivity. Many times, some patients may not have any symptoms. The symptoms may disappear once patient omits gluten in diet, by following gluten free diet. Infants Soon after introducing solid food containing gluten, the baby may fail to grow or gain weight. As food is not absorbed properly, the stools may be pale, bulky and offensive smelling.
The abdomen may be swollen and the baby may have repeated vomiting. The symptoms of coeliac disease in children may be similar to those in infants. In addition, poor absorption of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients results in anemia and poor growth in children.
Anemia (low hemoglobin) in spite of eating well should make a doctor think of Coeliac disease. Adults: The signs and symptoms of coeliac disease in adults vary from person to person. Generally, the most common symptoms observed are diarrhea and weight loss. However, some people diagnosed with coeliac disease may have constipation and are found to be obese.
Patients may present with symptoms of indigestion, bloating of abdomen, mild abdominal pain and loss of appetite. In addition to these digestive symptoms, other symptoms include: Anemia, headache, fatigue, itchy blisters on skin (often called as dermatitis herpetiformis), numbness and tingling in feet and hands, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, damage to dental enamel, joint pain and acid reflux or heartburn.
Causes of Coeliac disease
Coeliac disease being an auto-immune disorder, where the immune system mistakes one of the substances that makes up gluten, called gliadin as a threat to body; and starts fighting against it. In this process, the body produces antibodies against the gluten and the small intestines get inflamed on the surface.
The surface of the intestine is usually covered with millions of tiny tube-shaped growths called villi. Villi increase the surface area of the gut and help it to digest food more effectively. However, in coeliac disease, the damage and inflammation to the lining of the small intestine flattens the villi, which reduces their ability to help with digestion.
One has to have a genetic predisposition to get affected by Coeliac disease. It often runs in families. Some of the genes found to be associated with the coeliac disease are HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8. Either one or both of these genes are present in every person with coeliac disease.
But merely having these gene mutations doesn’t mean you’ll get coeliac disease, other factors must be involved. Sometimes coeliac disease is triggered or becomes active for the first time after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection or severe emotional stress.
Some environmental factors like previous infection of the digestive tract or improper diet also play a role in triggering coeliac disease in infancy, childhood or adults. People with auto-immune disorders like diabetes type-1, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disorders or some neurological disorder like epilepsy are at a higher risk of getting coeliac disease.

There are several serology (blood) tests available that screen coeliac disease antibodies. The most commonly used test is called tTG-Iga. If the test result is positive, then a biopsy of the small intestine is carried out. If the biopsy report shows underlying damage to the surface of intestine, the diagnosis gets confirmed.
It is very important to include gluten containing products in the diet at least for 6 weeks before undergoing these tests. The tests may show negative, if you are on a gluten-free diet. If blood and biopsy results seem unclear to diagnose coeliac disease, gene (HLA) testing can be useful.
People affected by coeliac disease have HLA DQ2, HLA DQ8, or parts of these genes. But only 1 in 30 people having these genes will develop coeliac disease. This test is helpful in people who have already commenced gluten-free diet, as the gene test is not dependent on gluten intake. People who are gluten sensitive experience symptoms similar to coeliac disease, but will not have intestinal damage and will test negative for coeliac disease antibodies.
People with coeliac disease who continue to take gluten in the diet or who are yet to be diagnosed with coeliac disease are at a risk of developing long-term complications like osteoporosis, malnutrition, lactose intolerance, other auto-immune disorders and in rare cases bowel cancer.
A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only effective treatment in coeliac disease. The gluten-free diet allows the small bowel to heal and the symptoms improve considerably within weeks of starting gluten-free diet. In addition to gluten-free diet, it is advised to start vitamin and mineral supplements to replace any deficiencies at least for the first six months after diagnosing coeliac disease. If the small intestine in severely damaged, then a doctor may recommend steroids for healing of the small intestine.
For other associated conditions with coeliac disease like itchy skin rash, osteoporosis, anemia, etc. medications should be started accordingly.

Homeopathic treatment for coeliac disease
The homeopathic approach to treating coeliac disease is similar to treating any auto-immune or allergic disease.
Homeopathy recognizes coeliac disease as hypersensitive state due to immunological reactivity governed by genetic tendency; and treats it accordingly. The homeopathic medicines are targeted at controlling the body’s over-reaction to gluten and also aimed at controlling the symptoms.
The homeopathic treatment is largely based on the constitutional approach. Some of the commonly used medicines are Silica, Calcaria phosphorica, Phosphorus, Kali carbonicum, Thuja occidentalis, Calcaria Carbonicum, Sulphur, Lycopodium clavatum, and some more.


Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or swelling of conjunctiva, which is an outermost covering of the eye and the inner eyelids. Most common causes of conjunctivitis include infections and allergies. Conjunctivitis can be acute (of short duration), chronic (long lasting) or recurring in nature. Conjunctivitis is probably the most common disorder of the eyes.

Thick, stringy discharge which may be yellowish or greenish in color
Eye pain
Swelling of the eye
Sensation of particle in the eye
Aversion to light
Sneezing and runny nose in allergic conjunctivitis.

It can be classified into two types:
A] Infectious conjunctivitis:
Infectious conjunctivitis is either bacterial or viral in origin and spreads to the other eye when one eye is infected. It also spreads to people coming in contact with the affected person.
B] Non-infectious conjunctivitis:
Non-infectious conjunctivitis occurs due to pollen or some foreign body or pollutants or dust or household cleaners, smoke, entering the eye, underlying diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, cytomegalovirus, lupus, Kawasaki’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Disease. It does not spread. Herpes can also cause non-infectious conjunctivitis. Chemical conjunctivitis is caused due to burns and exposure to toxic chemicals. Allergic conjunctivitis is accompanied by irritation and discharge from the nose as well which is worse in dry weather and better by moist weather.

Staying away from allergens, is one way of preventing allergic conjunctivitis.
Washing the eyes, face and hands frequently during the day prevents infectious conjunctivitis.
Staying away from crowded places and using personal towels and napkins and handkerchiefs prevents the disease from spreading to others.

Conventional Treatment:
Decongestant and antihistaminic eye drops or cromoglycate eye drops are used in allergic conjunctivitis.
Antibiotic eye drops are used in bacterial conjunctivitis.
Warm compresses help in viral conjunctivitis.
A wash out of the eyes with saline helps in chemical conjunctivitis.

Homeopathic Treatment:
Homeopathy has great scope in the treatment of conjunctivitis both the infectious and the non-infectious varieties by improving the immunity. Homeopathy is found to be more effective in chronic and recurring conjunctivitis such as Phlyctenular conjunctivitis, immunologically mediated conjunctivitis, etc. All forms of chronic and recurring conjunctivitis patients are strongly suggested to check the homeopathic option.


People mean many things when they say they have constipation. Infrequent passing of stools, difficulties in voiding, sense of incomplete voiding are all suggestive of constipation. The normal reference range for bowel movements is very varied. Some people have bowel movements three times a day; others, only one or two times a week.
Medically, constipation is defined as fewer than three bowel movements in a week. Constipation may be considered severe, when there is less than one bowel movement in a week.

Infrequent stools with no other complaints is rarely abnormal. Women are more affected than men. The elderly and children are however most prone to constipation.
Hard, difficult to pass stools which require straining or manual removal with fingers – felt more than 25% of times.
Stools infrequent, less than three times a week.
Sensation of incomplete voidance.
Other symptoms that a person with constipation may feel are:
The abdomen may seem bloated, distended or crampy.
The bowel sounds may seem enhanced.

Many factors contribute to development of constipation. Different people will have different set of causative factors.
Insufficient fiber intake in diet.
Not chewing the food properly / eating hurriedly.
Reduced water intake.
Various medications
Iron supplements
Antidepressants, tri-cyclic anti-depressants.
Stopping cigarette smoking.
Abuse of laxatives.
Medications containing calcium and aluminium.
Endocrine disorders like – under active thyroid.
Any severe illness like stroke, paralysis.
Major changes in life like pregnancy, old-age or traveling.
Psychosomatic causes like depression and anxiety neurosis.
Biochemical imbalance ‘ low potassium levels in blood.
Lead poisoning.
Conditions that obstruct the normal passage of the stools within the intestines ‘ foreign bodies in intestines, strictures, adhesions, tumors, etc.
Abdominal surgeries.
Weakened pelvic floor muscles.
Constipation can occur sometimes as part of a condition called ‘irritable bowel syndrome’ where it alternates with diarrhea.

A proper clinical history and physical examination usually suffices to diagnose constipation.
The presence of hard stools, difficulty in eliminating them and feeling of incomplete voiding of stools usually indicate the presence of constipation. Very hard, small, pellet-like stools which are eliminated with a lot of difficulty certainly indicate constipation even if stool occurs every day.
In very severe constipation of long standing, a physical examination may reveal the presence of hard lumps over the abdominal surface.
Other tests that your doctor may advice are:
Anorectal function tests – identify constipation caused by abnormal functioning of the anus or rectum.
Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
Colorectal transit study – shows how well food moves through the colon.
Defecography – evaluates completeness of stool elimination, evaluates rectal muscle contractions and relaxation and abnormalities in the anal canal or the rectum.
Barium enema X-rays of the abdomen to detect the presence of any foreign bodies or other structural abnormalities within the intestines.
Tests to rule out an under active thyroid.

Constipation is a condition easier to prevent than to cure. Tackling the problem at its onset can prevent many years of discomfort and sufferings.
Tips to Prevent Constipation
Have more fibres in your diet. 25 to 30 grams of daily intake can prevent constipation. Fibres help retain water in the stools thus making them softer and easier to expel.
Whole grain cereals and breads
Dried fruits, such as prunes and raisins
Popcorn, nuts, and seeds
Beans and legumes
Raw fruits and vegetables
Drink plenty of fluids, preferably water. 8 glasses a day will help. Have more if you are physically active. Prune (manukka) juice, and other fruit drinks are known to normalize bowel motility.
Cut down on soft drinks and alcohols. Dehydration is a major contributor for hard, lumpy & irregular stools. Overuse of colas, alcoholic and caffeinated products can contribute to constipation. They are dehydrating agents.
Check your medicine closet. Identify your routine medications that may contribute to constipation. Let your doctor help you find an alternative.
Don’t curb your natural tendencies! Do not ignore your body’s natural urge to defecate. Over time, your body will stop having these natural urges and constipation will set in. Train your child to void himself when he has the urge, even if he’d rather play.
Stop the regular use of laxatives and enemas. Their long-term use can aggravate constipation. If you must take laxatives, then try starting with very low doses. Avoid randomly self-medicating oneself.
Exercise, Exercise, Exercise!! Physical inactivity can certainly make bowel movements very sluggish! People tend to cut down on physical activities as they age, for many reasons. Walking is a great way to exercise and prevent constipation.

Changes in living and diet can alleviate the symptoms of chronic constipation. An under active thyroid disorder or mood disorders like anxiety neurosis will require treatments specific to them.
A major part of treatment consists of adding more fibre and fluids in the diet; engaging in more physical activities and modifying the stress factors that contribute to constipation.
Constipation not improving with life-style changes is managed with
However, long term use of laxatives can cause further symptoms of distention and bloated feeling, not to mention an ever increasing dependence on them.

Homeopathic treatment for Constipation:
Homeopathy offers promising cure for constipation. Chronic constipation results from various constitutional problems such as stress, genetic predisposing, altered sleep pattern, etc. Homeopathy offers treatment which is based on the patient’s individual case pattern. Homeopathy is strongly recommended for all cases of constipation.
Homeopathic treatment for constipation is based on the treatment of internal causes leading to development of constipation. Most cases of constipation may not need medicine but some lifestyle and food changes.
The homeopathic medicines for constipation have a distinction over the purgatives by it not being habit-forming. Most of the purgatives are habit forming, doing more harm at the end, on stopping it. Homeopathic medicines are NOT habit forming, as they are actually not purgatives.
Some common homeopathic remedies are listed below:
Nux vomica: This is an over-the-counter homeopathic medicine, which is safe to take for a few days, for getting relief in constipation. Typically, this medicine is suitable for young executives or businessmen, who are always on the go, living stressful life, pressure of deadlines, frequent travellers, irregular sleep habits, use or abuse of alcohol and smokers, and who are highly ambitious. They are likely to be lean, thin in physical structure and may be regular at gym, still not satisfied with bowel movements. Nux Vomica 30c potency for a week may help them with constipation.
Bryonia alba: This medicine is suitable to those who are constipation and having dry, hard stool, requiring straining at passing stool; or those who have no desire to pass stool for a couple of days. Again, they are business executives, living stressful urban lifestyle.


COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary (lung) Disease) is a common form of chronic lung disease found all across the world. It is the abbreviation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. Pulmonary refer to lungs. It includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Bronchitis is discussed separately. Here we will focus on Emphysema.
Emphysema is a chronic progressive disease of lung. It is caused by destruction of tissue surrounding air sacs (alveoli) in lungs. Due to this, alveoli cannot retain air inside them ultimately leading to shortness of breath.
Causes of COPD:
Major causes include smoking and pollution.

Symptoms of COPD:
Patients suffer lack of oxygen and excess of carbon dioxide in lungs. Patient exhibit shortness of breath. Symptoms usually get increased by physical activity. Eventually it will occur after any physical exertion. Later on the patient may complain of rapid breathing (tachypnoea). They may also lose weight. The anteroposterior diameter of chest may increase (barrel chest).
Diagnosis of COPD:
Diagnosis of COPD is done by the doctor with the help of clinical examination and some simple tests, which include:
Spirometry (Lung function test)
X-ray chest
Complete blood count
Blood test to rule out tuberculosis

Homeopathic treatment
Homeopathy offers good supportive role in cases of Emphysema. Homeopathy can control further destruction of the tissues in lungs. In addition it enhances body’s immunity. Thus symptomatic relief and prevention of complication are main achievement by homeopathy.
In severe cases supplementary oxygen may be beneficial. Homeopathy can also reduce need for bronchodilators, cortisone and antibiotics (in case of infection).

Corns Callosities

Callosities also known as clavus or corns, are toughened areas in the skin, as a result of repeated pressure or repeated contact with rough surfaces. They are most common on the hands and feet but appear localized to the area that bears repeated pressure or abrasion.

Cause of Callosities (Corns):
Corns and calluses arise from hyperkeratosis, a normal physiological response to chronic excessive pressure or friction on the skin.
The outermost layer of skin called the stratum corneum is maintained as a hard, protective, layer by the process of keratin deposition (keratinisation). The stratum corneum is thus maintained as a highly protective sheath over the skin. In hyperkeratosis, there is excess deposition of keratin over the skin as a result of repeated pressure or shear strain that chronically displaces or disrupts the stratum corneum. This excess deposition may happen either locally or in a diffuse manner depending upon individual tendencies and the nature of stresses involved.
Often, callosities are found in sensitive areas of the body where the overlying skin is exposed to repeated wear and tear. They are the body’s natural response to repeated moderate and constant, pressures. Callosities are commoner over the skin overlying the weight bearing areas of the body while the corns may appear on non-weight bearing areas of the palms and soles.
The corn is a localized collection of dead skin cells which have a very hard (indurated) centre. Many clinicians believe that a typical callosity differs from a corn because, its center unlike the corn is softer and not a hardened core.
Occasionally, when corns become painful, they are called ‘bunions’.
The most common sites for clavus formation are the feet, specifically the dorsolateral aspect of the fifth toe for heloma durum, in the fourth interdigital web of the foot for heloma molle, and under the metatarsal heads for calluses.

Who gets a corn or callus?
Anyone who subjects their body parts repeatedly to pressures, are candidates for corn or callus formations.
One’s chances of developing corns or callosities increase if they are subject to the following conditions:
Ill-fitting shoes.
High-heeled shoes.
Cramped footwear, use of hard footwear, using shoes without socks, etc.
Foot deformities: bony projections or poorly united fractures, the presence of a second toe longer than the first toe.
Dancing bare feet or wearing uncomfortable shoes.
Playing musical instruments like the guitar, sitar, drums, etc.
Writers are prone to developing callosities over the middle finger called ‘a writer’s bump’.
Weight lifting can cause callosities in the palms of the person.
Occupations like hair-dressers, carpentry, boxing, cherry pitting, dancers who perform spins on their backs, jewelry making etc. increase the occurrence of callosities on parts exposed to repeated frictions and pressures.
Infants and children who suck their toes or fingers develop callosities over the areas of friction.
Some medical conditions predispose a person to callosities. Callosities may form a part of their symptoms (keratoderma palmaris et plantaris) or natural squeal of the disease progression. Conditions that present with callosities at some point are:
Diabetes -> chronic diabetes with peripheral neuropathy.
Rheumatoid arthritis -> abnormal pressure if there is a deformity of the foot.
Diseases which affect nerves carrying sensations (sensory neuropathies)
Bulimia nervosa
Exposure to toxins like arsenic can cause hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles.
Certain religious activities like offering prayers by kneeling with hands on forehead give rise to callosities on forehead called ‘prayer calluses’.

Affected area of the skin appears rough, thickened and hyperkeratotic.
It is common to find the callus present with fungal infections.
Pain: on applying direct pressure is not uncommon. Some callosities can be so painful that they seriously alter the person’s gait and daily activities.
Occasionally – presence of a keratin plug in the centre of the callus.

Callosities can be diagnosed through proper descriptions of the symptoms, clinical examination, and histopathological reports of a biopsy specimen.
How long do Callosities last?
In most cases, the callus resolves once the offending pressures are removed. But, if they are caused by an underlying condition, there are high chances of recurrence.

Treatment for Callosities (Corn)

Any treatment measure opted for must treat not only the corn or callus, but also provide relief from the underlying cause.
Callosities may be acutely painful because of pressure of the central keratin plug on underlying nerves in the papillary (second layer of skin) layer. Callosities which are soft or overlying bony surfaces can occasionally become infected due to minor tears in the thin overlying skin.
Pain relief can be obtained by paring the callus and relieving the tension within.
Regular scrubbing with a pumice stone after soaking the feet or callus in warm water can prevent recurrence especially in painless callosities.
Uses of proper footwear which distributes weight evenly can prevent the recurrence of callosities.
Adequate antibiotics or anti-fungal therapy will control the superadded infections.
Homeopathy for callosities
Callosities and corns show promising results with homeopathic treatment. Homeopathic medicines can relieve the pain as well as recurrence of the callosities. Painful callosities that cannot be scrubbed by pumice stones respond well to homeopathic medications taken internally.