Diseases Starting with D

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Dandruff is one of the most common ailments affecting the scalp. Dandruff is nothing but excessive scaling of dead cells of the skin of the scalp. As you are aware, body undergoes constant but gradual renewal every 24 hours. However, when it is much faster renewal of the skin, it becomes visible in the form of scales, which we call dandruff.

Symptoms of dandruff:

Dandruff, per se, is not a disease but a symptom. Excessive and obvious scaling of skin which is visible in the form of white (grey), flaky substance is the most common symptom (or sign) of dandruff. It may often be associated with itching, oily skin, irritation or redness of underlying skin. It tends to be chronic (long lasting) as well as recurring.

Dandruff could be of two major types: a. Dry (flakes appear silvery and white) b. Moist. (where the flakes appear pale yellowish with unpleasant smell.)

Causes of dandruff:

Dandruff results from rapid maturing (and hence shedding) of the cells every week, instead of every month.

Excessive oil (sebum) production precipitates dandruff in many people. This over activity could result from more than one reason. The causes, triggering factors and maintaining factors can be categorized as under:

Internal causes

External causes

Hormonal imbalance

Infection (Pityrosporum Ovale or Malassezia Globosa) (Debatable.)

Poor Health

Excessive use of hair sprays, gels

Allergic (Hypersensitive)

Improper use of hair : coloring products, hot iron curls

Emotional Stress

Cold weather, dry indoor heating

Excessive consumption of fat, starch, sugar

Infrequent shampooing of hair or Inadequate rinsing or shampooing of hair

Improper Nutrition

Poor Hygiene

Hereditary Predisposition

Excessive junk food

Dandruff is often found to be is mostly seasonal. Some patients find it most severe during winter and mildest during summer.

Though Dandruff is called as Dry Scalp but the people with oily scalp tend to suffer the most.

Diagnosis of dandruff:

While concluding the exact diagnosis of dandruff, your doctor often requires ruling out other underlying diseases, which often resemble present like dandruff: They are

Seborrhoeic dermatitis


Fungal infection

Your doctor will be able to evaluate your history and the exact diagnosis could be arrived at by a close clinical examination. No biopsy is required.

Treatment of dandruff:

The challenge of treating dandruff lies in the successful control of its relapse. It is not very difficult to treat dandruff for once. However, it is not easy to treat dandruff forever!

The treatment for dandruff should aim at controlling the underlying causing factors as well as the symptoms.

Conventional treatment:

The conventional treatment often treats the end result rather than the root cause of dandruff. Most commonly measures are use of

Use of Anti-dandruff shampoo’s


Antifungal shampoo

Selenium sulphide

Homeopathic treatment:

Homeopathic treatment aims are treating dandruff in totality. In other words, it treats the underlying cause of dandruff (please check the causes as described above) and hence helps preventing recurrence of dandruff.

The medicines uses for dandruff are geared towards altering the activity of the scalp tissue and therefore slow down the multiplication of the cells of the scalp. Homeopathic medicines possibly depress the abnormal multiplication of cells of the scalp called ‘stratum corneum’. Homeopathic medicines are unique in the respect that they can act as immune-modulators and address underlying immunological parameters while treating dandruff.

Homeopathic Remedies for Dandruff

Some of the commonly used homeopathic medicines for dandruff are

Mezerium, Thuja Occidentalis, Kali sulphuricum, Kali muriaticum, Sulphur, Psorinum, Natrum muriaticum, Graphites, Sepia and more.

Mezerium: This medicine is prepared from the plant, which grows in Russia, Scandinavia and Asia, with bright red berries. Mezerium helps those cases of chronic dandruff who have thick scabs which are hard to remove, which may leave behind painful marks and possibly scars.

Thuja Occidentalis: This powerful medicine helps resistant cases of dandruff, where the patients have oily hair, itching on scalp and may also have oily face; with or without acne or pimples. These patients are usually sensitive to cold. One may need just a few doses selected in correct potency by a professionally trained homeopathic physician.



Dengue is a serious viral infection prevalent mostly in the tropical countries like India, Africa etc.
Causes: It is transmitted by an infected female Aedes aegypti mosquito. When the mosquito bites a person infected with dengue, the dengue virus enters the body of that particular mosquito. When the infected mosquito bites a healthy human being, the dengue virus enters the human body and the person shows the symptoms of dengue.
High grade fever with chills. Fever is as high as 104*F
Severe headaches
Severe joints and muscle pains
Sever pain in eyeballs especially while moving the eyes.
Appearance of skin rash mostly on the abdomen and limbs.
Nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite
Internal and external bleeding in the body
Dengue fever should be suspected when the patient complains of very high temperature and severe body pain. While giving the history the patient says, I feel as if each bone of mine is broken.When a practitioner gets to hear such kind of words or description by a patient, he should investigate that patient for dengue fever immediately.
Dengue fever is also known as the Break bone fever. Platelet counts start decreasing fast in the blood in such patients. Platelets are responsible for stopping the bleeding occurring anywhere in the body. The decrease in number of platelets increases chances of hemorrhage from various parts of the body in the patients suffering from this disease.
Following symptoms in a patient of Dengue are considered the alarming signs. Such patients should be kept under close medical observation.
Bleeding from the nose
Bleeding from mouth
Passing blood in urine. This may present as passing reddish or brownish urine.
Passing blood in stools. Or passing dark colored stools.
Bleeding under the skin causing bruising on the body.
Severe hypotension means drop in the blood pressure.
Brain hemorrhage and internal bleeding in various parts of the body like stomach, lungs etc.
Diagnosis is confirmed by doing Dengue IgM test along with other blood tests like CBC ESR, Liver function test, PCR and virus isolation tests are the confirmatory tests for the Dengue fever.
Spread of this disease can be reduced by taking following measures.
As far as possible wear clothes that cover the skin of the whole body. This prevents the skin exposure to the mosquitoes.
Use mosquito repellents in the room
Use nets and screening on windows.
Avoid storing water in bathrooms and kitchen as dengue spreading mosquitoes breed in clean and stagnant water.
Avoid keeping plants in the house. Because this is an ideal ground for the mosquito breeding.
The treatment is given symptomatically. Ideally, patient should be hospitalized to keep a check on platelet counts and as there is lot of loss of fluids from the body patient has to be administered IV fluids to keep him hydrated. Patient of Dengue can easily go into hypotension (low blood pressure), so continuous Blood Pressure monitoring is also very important. When there is a need doctor advises the patient for undergoing platelet transfusion.
Role of homeopathy:
Dengue is the disease which requires a close monitoring of the patient in the hospital. Administering homeopathic drugs along with other conventional drugs can speed up the time of recovery in the patient.
Homeopathic medicine Eupatorium Perfoleatum is one of the drugs best known to reduce the body pain considerably in the patient suffering from Dengue. Apart from this, drugs like Aconite, Gelseminum, Bryonia Alba, Rhus Toxicodendron, and Ipecacunha etc. can be given as per the symptoms.
As a supportive line of treatment along with conventional medicines, homeopathic medicines can offer best results in the treatment of Dengue. More research is required to prove if Dengue could be prevented by using homeopathic prophylactic medicines. Some study in Brazil has shown encouraging results with homeopathic preventive.


Dental Disease

  • The spread of the virus occurs by droplet infection i.e. when a person infected with Rubella sneezes or coughs he throws the virus in the air; the droplets in the air spread infection in the healthy individuals.
    Symptoms of Rubella are generally mild. They appear after 2 to 3 weeks after the person is infected by Rubella virus. The disease presents itself in the following way.
    Development of red or pink rashes first on face then trunk and then on the extremities.
    Bright red conjunctiva of the patient.
    One peculiar symptom is the child affected with Rubella presents with sunken eyes.
    Presence of fever, cold and cough
    Enlargement of lymph nodes especially behind the ears and the neck.
    Child becomes irritable and cranky.
    In adults or adolescents Rubella can cause severe joints pain or arthritis.
    For how long the patient of Rubella can spread the infection to others?
    The patient of Rubella can spread the infection for almost 20 to 25 days. The patient is contagious for about 10 days before the onset of rash and he remains contagious for about another 7-15 days after the rash disappears.
    Rubella and pregnancy: If a pregnant woman contracts Rubella during pregnancy, then her child bears the serious consequences of it. The children of such mothers develop Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the first year after the birth.
    Symptoms of Congenital Rubella Syndrome:
    Cleft lip
    Cleft palate
    Retardation of physical growth
    Mental retardation
    Congenital cataract
    Low birth weight
    Congenital defects in the heart etc.
    Rubella can be easily prevented by giving vaccine to the child. The child should be given the MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccine at 9 months, 15 months and at 4-6 years of age before entering the school. Most parents give first two doses of vaccines but they tend to forget the MMR vaccine dose at 4-6 years of age.
    Rubella vaccine should be taken by the women of child bearing age before planning the pregnancy. But care should be taken that women should not become pregnant for at least 28 days after taking the Rubella vaccine. A person develops lifelong immunity against Rubella, after getting infected by the disease.
    Isolation of the patient suffering from Rubella is the most important part of the treatment. The patient should be isolated from others during the infectious period because the Rubella infection can very easily spread in healthy individuals.
    Doctors generally give the symptomatic line of treatment for controlling the severity of fever, body pains, headaches and cough cold etc.



Depression is a chronic, long lasting or recurring and treatable disorder, where the patient experiences sadness, worthlessness, loss of motive, loss of interest and/or hopelessness.
A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the mood and thoughts and in simple words can be expressed as persistent sad mood. Depression is not a character flaw or a sign of personal weakness and the suffering person can’t make himself well by trying to snap out of it. Depression affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things.
Depression results from a complex, partly understood biochemical changes in the brain, which are influenced and supported by multiple causes inclusive of genetic trait, circumstantial factors, hormonal factors, socio-personal reasons, etc. Increased levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine are found to improve the state of depression.
Depression is much more common than we believe. However to get precise figures in terms of its prevalence is difficult as many of them go undetected and untreated. Women are twice more often affected with depression than men.
Not everyone who is depressed experiences all the symptoms listed below. Some people experience a few symptoms, some many. Severity of symptoms varies with individuals and also varies over time.
Common Symptoms of Depression
Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood and unexplained crying spells
Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, guilt feeling, worthlessness
Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed, including sex, social withdrawal
Loss of energy, persistent lethargy
Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions
Insomnia, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
Appetite and/or weight loss or overeating and weight gain
Thoughts of death or suicide; suicide attempts
Restlessness, irritability, anger, agitation
Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain
Though the precise cause and nature of depression is not clearly understood, it is believed to be an illness involving an imbalance of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. The reasons that can induce such chemical imbalance are as follows:
01 Some types of depression run in families, suggesting that the condition can be inherited from parents and grandparents as a genetic predisposition.
02 When this genetic predisposition is topped with stresses at home, work, or school, it can evolve in depression. Stress can be in the form of a serious loss, difficult relationship, financial problem, or any stressful change in life patterns, etc.
03 People who have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism or who are readily overwhelmed by stress, are prone to depression.
04 Medical illnesses such as stroke, a heart attack, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and hormonal disorders can cause depressive illness.
Very often, a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors is involved in the onset of a depressive disorder.
Homeopathic Treatment
Homeopathy offers an excellent treatment for all stages of Depression, especially in the early stages. Homeopathy can take care of various symptoms of depression. Extreme cases of depression or the cases where the patients are on high doses of the conventional medicines for a long time (drug dependency) may not find good results using homeopathy.
Homeopathy can positively influence personality traits that are working at the base of disease. The important aspect is that depression is a disease in which genetic make-up is topped with environmental stress result in disease. Homeopathic medicines are very deep acting and having potential to counter genetic tendencies. Homeopathy medicines address the root cause of the disease and hence prevent the relapse and recurrence of the condition. Last but not the least, homeopathy medicines are absolutely free from any side-effects as opposed to most of conventional medicines like anti-depressants and anxiolytics.
Homeopathy goes into the depths of depression, and the treatment is thus based on the underlying causes of it.
The results achieved using from homeopathy can be augmented with supportive measures like counseling and psychotherapy.
Homeopathic Remedies for Depression
Selection of a correct homeopathic medicine for depression requires professional skill, detailed case evaluation of the patient’s life space, in-depth knowledge of homeopathy, proper understanding about depression and the psychological diseases, training in counseling and the like. Simply buying some homeopathic medicines from the market and taking randomly would not give any benefit. Some of the commonly indicated homeopathic medicines are listed here:
Aurum Metallicum: This medicine is prepared by processing the precious metal, gold (Au). This is a deep acting; effective medicine, which can influence and help recover from deep-seated depression.
The patient requiring this medicine is likely to have lost interest in life. There is a sense of loathing for life, lack of joy, loss of smile, loss of hope. Desire to live life is lost and as a result you find this patient gloomy, sad, depressed, lost somewhere, vacant and isolated. He may be feeling lost, lonely and all alone in the world. He may have seen a very hectic and even successful career; and due to some triggers, there would be an U-turn and the person falls into deep valley of depression.
Manganese: This metal medicine has ample of gloominess, depression and sadness. You may find this person reserved, self-turned, un-social, keeping away from meeting with people. You may find this person in the house, in his or her room, keeping himself isolated. He may feel better by very sad music.


Diabetes Type 1

Type I Diabetes is also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile Diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome (= set of symptoms) characterized by increased level of sugar (glucose) in the blood due to deficiency or inactivity of hormone ‘Insulin’ that is absolutely necessary to monitor glucose metabolism of body. By and large IDDM is an early-onset disease and is frequently seen in children though adults can also be affected by it. Diabetes is prevalent worldwide and if not attended properly, it may lead to serious complications.
Causes of Diabetes 1:
IDDM occurs as a result of decreased production of hormone ‘Insulin’ by the pancreas (the organ that synthesizes insulin). This occurs due to loss of the insulin-producing cells (beta cells of the islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas.

Auto- immunity (disturbance of immune system where body’s defense mechanism starts attacking body’s own organs and tissues) has been strongly suggested as a causative factor in the initiation of Type I Diabetes. Genetic factors may also have a role to play in this alteration of the immunity. Type 1 diabetes also appears to be triggered by some viral infections or less likely stress-related or environmental factors (such as exposure to certain chemicals).
The classical triad of diabetes symptoms is polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (excessive hunger/appetite). These symptoms may develop quite fast in children. There may also be weight loss and excessive fatigue.

Homeopathic treatment
In case of Insulin Dependent Type I diabetes, the role of homeopathy is restricted to controlling the complications of diabetes such as diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, etc. Homeopathy does not have medicines that could stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin in cases of Type I diabetes.


Diabetes Type 2

Type II Diabetes is also known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Adult-onset Diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome (= set of symptoms) characterized by increased level of sugar (glucose) in the blood due to deficiency or inactivity of hormone ‘Insulin’ that is absolutely necessary to monitor glucose metabolism of body. This is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency and consecutively hyperglycemia. Diabetes is prevalent worldwide and if not attended properly, it may lead to serious complications.
Causes of Diabetes 2:
NIDDM basically occurs due to defective insulin secretion combined with defective responsiveness of the body to the insulin (also called Insulin resistance). Due to both these factors, hyperglycemia starts occurring in the body. NIDDM is strongly associated with obesity and with increasing age. A strong inheritance pattern has been noted in cases of type 2 diabetes. Sedentary lifestyle, pregnancy, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, etc pose as risk factors for developing Diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes can begin at any age though it is not very common in childhood. It usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which the body does not use insulin properly. At first, the pancreas keeps up with the added demand by producing more insulin but later it loses the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals. This ultimately results in Hyperglycemia (high levels of glucose in circulation).
Homeopathic Treatment for Diabetes 2:
Type II Diabetes is a constitutional disorder as it is an offshoot of constitutional defects (genetic factors, altered immunity) having an impact on the entire constitution of an individual. Hence it calls for an in-depth constitutional approach for its management.
Homeopathy is based on the principle that disease is a total affliction of body. Moreover homeopathy recognizes importance of the underlying causes such as genetic and inherited factors as the root of any ailment of the body. Homeopathic medicines prescribed on such criteria plays a crucial role in management of many deep-rooted, chronic, difficult diseases; one amongst them being Diabetes.
When we talk about diseases like diabetes, we talk in terms of management rather than cure. Homeopathic treatment along with intake of hypoglycemic drugs and/or insulin can prevent the progress and the complications associated with this condition. Moreover timely administered homeopathic medicines help in maintaining the levels of exogenous insulin and hypoglycemic drugs at minimum possible dosage and in preventing the further progress of the disease. However, it may be noted that there is no substitute to insulin in homeopathy. The role of a healthy diet and exercise cannot be underestimated along with all the above treatment measures.


Dry Eyes

Dry eyes occurs due to decreased secretion of tears in the eyes’ tear glands.
Types of Dry Eyes
It is of two types:
A Primary: Where the problem is inherent and the tear glands secrete less amount of tears.
B Secondary: Where the tear glands secrete less tears due to some systemic problem or auto-immune disease or some medications.
Symptoms of Dry Eyes:
01 Itching
02 Dryness
03 Burning
04 Redness
05 Irritation
06 Excessive tears
07 Blurred vision improving with blinking
08 Increased sensitivity to bright light
09 Sensation of speck in the eye
10 Pulling sensation behind the eye
11 Increased discomfort after reading, watching TV or working on the computer, driving
Increased symptoms in dry weather and environment and better in humid weather and environment like rainy days and in the shower
Hormonal changes during menstruation, pregnancy and menopause can cause dry eyes
Antihistamines, sedatives, diuretics, Tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, beta-blockers, nasal decongestants, atropine ,pain relieving opiates such as morphine and birth control pills can cause dry eyes
Sjogrens’ syndrome
Sensory denervation
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Wegeners’ Granulaomatosis
Diabetics are at an increased risk of dry eyes
Thermal or chemical burns
Bulging eyes
Drooping Eyelid
LASIK ,refractive surgeries
Vitamin A deficiency
Diphtheric keratoconjunctivitis
Treatment for Dry Eyes:
Constantly blinking eyes while watching TV , working on the computer, etc
Wearing glasses or having a downward gaze while working on the computer can also help.
Research has proven that consumption of dark fleshed fish and omega-3 fatty acids causes decreased incidence of dry eyes in women.Customized contact lenses like Boston Scleral lenses are known to help in the secretion of tears.
Surgeries like blocking tear drainage, punctual plugs and cauterization of punctii are performed to help the patients.



Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities and about 4% of people over the world suffer from it. These patients have difficulty in processing language, especially in tasks involving reading and writing. Dyslexia is more common in males as compared to females and it can continue into adulthood also.
Symptoms of dyslexia may vary from mild to very severe and can be broadly grouped into the following categories:
1) Reading (and spelling):

The child is often confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences or verbal explanations
His reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions (‘b’ instead of ‘d’, ‘p’ instead of ‘q’), omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/or words
He may feel that the letters or words to be moving or jumping around on the page when he is reading or writing
He reads and rereads with little comprehension
He seems to have difficulty with vision, yet eye exams don’t reveal a problem
2) Writing (motor skills):
He has trouble with writing or copying in class
He is clumsy, uncoordinated while writing, handwriting may be illegible
He can be ambidextrous and often confuses left/right, over/under
3) Hearing and Speech:
The child is easily distracted by sounds or he may hear things that have not been said
He may face difficulty in speaking out what he is thinking (cannot put thoughts into words)
He may mispronounce words (e.g. ‘God’ instead of ‘Dog’), transpose words while speaking, leave sentences incomplete or take long halts during his speech
4) Memory:
He has poor memory for facts, sequences, information that has not been experienced
His memory can be very good for things that have been experienced
In general the child can appear to be very bright and intelligent but when it comes to reading, writing, spellings, etc he can be very bad at these
The child learns best through experience, observation, demonstrations, experimentation, and visual aids
He can fare well in verbal tests but may not be able to do well in written exams
5) General features:
The child can be very talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, designing, etc
He may have high IQ but may not score well academically
At school he may be labeled as lazy or careless due to his symptoms
The child may develop low self-esteem due to his inability to cope up with the educational system
Causes of Dyslexia:
Dyslexia is an inherited condition which appears to affect more boys than girls and the genetic component has been found to play an important role in the development of this condition. In dyslexic patients, structural differences in the way the brain is wired up during development stage have been found. There has been found a deficit in a special pathway between the eye and the brain- the “magnocellular pathway&”- in dyslexic individuals. Many people with dyslexia have also found to be deficient in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids.
Homeopathic treatment:
Dyslexia a constitutional disorder, as it is an outcome of a constitutional problem (genetic factors). Homeopathy is definitely recommended for the management of dyslexia. Special modified teaching methods and educational environment, special tutoring, summer school, speech therapy, or placement in special classes helps the dyslexics to cope up better. Homeopathic treatment is extremely effective in the cases of Dyslexia and strongly recommended. along with other supportive therapies.



It can be defined as pain which is in relation to menses that is troublesome so as to disable a woman from performing her routine chores.
Dysmenorrhea can be classified into primary dysmenorrhea where no underlying pathology can be demonstrated and secondary dysmenorrhea which has a definitive underlying causative pathology.
On the basis of the character, dysmenorrhea can also be classified into spasmodic and membranous type.
As the names suggest, the spasmodic type of dysmenorrhea involves severe pain which waxes and wanes in intensity with the contraction and relaxation of the uterus while the membranous variety has actual shedding of chunks of meaty portions of the innermost wall of the uterus called the endometrium. Very often dysmenorrhea is accompanied by a whole lot of symptoms such as giddiness, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, fever, etc.
Excessive production of prostaglandins is one of the major causes for most signs and symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is almost wholly due to this and may be due to a tight cervix, the mouth of the uterus. Such cases improve totally after a normal child birth due to stretching of the uterine musculature. Secondary dysmenorrhea, however, needs proper investigating into in order to know the causative pathology. The underlying pathology needs to be treated to control painful menses. Pain-killers can only offer temporary relief. The common causes of secondary dysmenorrhea are pelvic infections, congestive or inflammatory conditions within the pelvis like endometriosis, uterine tumors such as polyps or fibroids, and the presence of a foreign body such as an intrauterine contraceptive device [IUCD].
Suggestion about homeopathic treatment:
Homeopathy has a promising role to play in cases of dysmenorrhea. The medicines are known to reduce the severity of the pain as well as to treat the cause, whenever possible. Every patient with dysmenorrhea may present with a different set of individual symptoms, which are carefully noted while deciding the homeopathic line of treatment. Homeopathic treatment is strongly suggested.