Diseases Starting with P

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Parkinson's Disease (Pd)

Parkinson’s disease, also called paralysis agitans or shaking palsy is a movement disorder. Cases of PD are reported at all ages, though it is uncommon in people younger than 40.
This disease is more common among men and usually occurs after 60 years.
The average age at which symptoms begin in the USA. is 58-60.
The nerve cells in the part of the brain which control movements are mainly affected. The nerve cells (neurons) which make the chemical called dopamine either don’t work sufficiently or are completely destroyed. The real cause behind this had never been identified. Though, many risk factors have been enumerated in literature.
Persons suffering from Parkinson’s disease need not present with every common symptom. The number of symptoms and their intensities are known to vary with every individual. Most common signs & symptoms of Parkinson’s include:
Tremors felt in the fingers, hands, arms, legs, jaw and face. Initially these tremors are mild and visible only while resting. Eventually they become visible even during routine movements.
Rigidity is another symptom. Persons suffering often feel stiffness or inflexibility in their muscles. Muscles normally stretch when they move, and then relax when they are at rest. In rigidity, the muscle tone of an affected limb is always stiff and does not relax, sometimes resulting in a decreased range of motion.
Muscular movements like walking, running, dancing, sitting, grasping objects with fingers all seem very stiff. Rigidity can cause pain and cramping. The sense of fluidity in these movements is lost. In advanced conditions, even the facial muscles become very rigid, thus giving an appearance of an expressionless face, something akin to wearing a mask.
Bradykinesia or slowness of movements usually accompanies the sensation of stiffness and rigidity. A person with bradykinesia will probably also have incomplete movements, difficulty initiating movements and sudden stopping of ongoing movement.
There is increasing inability to perform tasks which require rapid alternating movements.
Loss of balance and in coordination of movements results in frequent falls when beginning to walk or run.
Gait: There is a ‘shuffling’ gait characterized by short steps, with feet barely leaving the ground, producing an audible shuffling noise. Small obstacles tend to trip the patient.
Decreased arm swing.Turning ‘en-bloc’, rather than the usual twisting of the neck and trunk and pivoting on the toes, PD patients keep their neck and upper body rigid, requiring multiple small steps to accomplish a turn. Stooped, forward-flexed posture both when sitting and standing. Festination: a combination of stooped posture, imbalance, and short steps. It leads to a gait that gets progressively faster and faster, often ending in a fall.
Dystonia: abnormal, sustained, painful twisting muscle contractions, usually affecting the foot and ankle, interfering with gait. However, dystonia can be quite generalized, involving a majority of skeletal muscles; such episodes are very painful and completely disabling.
They may go through periods of “freezing”, which is when a person feels stuck to the ground and finds it difficult to start walking. The slowness and incompleteness of movement can also affect speaking and swallowing.
Speech: the voice becomes very soft. Later, the sound turns hoarse and monotonous. Occasionaly, the speech becomes excessively rapid, soft, and poorly-intelligible.
Gradual progress in the disorder causes an inability to understand the meaning & essence of speech. Also, there is difficulty in deciphering the facial expressions seen on others when conversing.
Drooling: Weak swallowing and stooped posture causes drooling of saliva.
More symptoms which are seen in PD are:
Small, cramped handwriting (micrographia)
Dementia and confusion
Fear or anxiety
Slow thinking & memory problems
Sexual dysfunction
Fatigue and body aches
Compulsive behaviors
Loss of energy
Sleep disturbances: excessive daytime sleepiness; insomnia; vivid, disturbing dreams.
These symptoms certainly vary in intensities in different persons. They are seen as the disease progresses and everyone do not suffer from all of them.
We now know that many of the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease develop when certain nerve cells (neurons) in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra are damaged or destroyed. Normally, these nerve cells release dopamine — a chemical that transmits signals between the substantia nigra and another part of the brain, the corpus striatum. These signals cause your muscles to make smooth, controlled movements.
As a normal part of aging everyone loses some dopamine-producing neurons.
People with Parkinson’s disease lose half or more of neurons in the substantia nigra. Although other brain cells also degenerate, the dopamine-containing cells are critical for movement and so their damage takes center stage.
Causes of Parkinson’s disease:
Why Parkinson’s Disease occurs, no one knows. These are some factors that scientists believe predisposes individuals to PD.
Genetic factors: About 15 to 25 percent of people with Parkinson’s report having a relative with the disease. This means that if your parent has Parkinson’s, your chances of developing the disease are slightly higher than the risk in the general population.
Studies have revealed that there may be more of a genetic basis to young-onset PD (that is, the 10 percent or so of people with Parkinson’s for whom onset occurs at or before age 50) than to later-onset PD.
The vast majority of Parkinson’s cases are not directly inherited, but researchers have discovered several genes that can cause the disease in a small number of families. Genetic diseases occur when important genes contain mutations, which result in abnormal proteins that in turn cause disease.
Environmental factors: Scientists have suggested that Parkinson’s disease may result from exposure to an environmental toxin or injury. Research has identified several factors that may be linked to PD, including rural living, well water, herbicide use and exposure to pesticides. Pesticides are thought to adversely affect the brain by inhibiting energy production resulting in brain cell death.
Studies have also shown that smoking and caffeine use appear to protect against the development of PD. However, it is universally agreed that the health risks associated with smoking are worse than any incidental benefits that might be gained by this habit.
Also, a synthetic narcotic agent called MPTP can cause immediate and permanent Parkinsonism if injected.
Head trauma: Past episodes of head trauma are reported more frequently by sufferers than by others in the population.
Drug induced: Antipsychotics, which are used to treat schizophrenia and psychosis, can induce the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (or parkinsonism) by lowering dopaminergic activity.
Currently no blood or laboratory tests that have been proven to help in diagnosing PD. It is difficult to diagnose PD accurately. Thus, medical history and a neurological examination alone guide the physician in diagnosing.

The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is a rating scale used to follow the longitudinal course of Parkinson’s disease.

Related conditions: There are a number of disorders that mimic Parkinson’s disease in some of their symptoms. On close examination though, they are distinguisale from the idiopathic PD. These conditions fortunately have additional symptoms which do not occur in PD.Such disorders need to be ruled out before establishing a diagnosis of PD.
Multiple System Atrophy(MSA)
Cerebellar ataxia
pyramidal weakness
autonomic failure (previously known as Shy-Drager syndrome)
nocturnal stridor
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy(PSP)
failure of voluntary vertical eye movements
early dementia
Corticobasal degeneration(CBD)
cognitive impairment
Dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB)
early cognitive impairment
Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy(OPCA)
Wilson’s Disease
Torsion dystonia
These Parkinson-plus syndromes are usually more rapidly progressive and less likely to respond to anti-parkinsonian medication than Parkinson’s disease. However, the additional features of the diseases may respond to medications not used in Parkinson’s disease.
Treatment options for Parkinsons Disease
Conventional treatment
There is no permanent cure for PD. Though many patients show dramatic response to medications initially, with gradual progress, the benefits of drugs diminish.

Treatment usually comprises of: –
Physical therapy
Medications: medications help control the problems faced in walking, movements and tremor. However, they need to be taken in various combinations which need to be changed after every little while. The medicines used are:
Levodopa and Carbidopa: Levodopa had been the ‘gold standard’ for treating PD since its introduction in 1960. levodopa is a naturally occuring substance in nature. It is a precursor of the chemical dopamine which gets converted to dopamine by the nerve cells in the brain. There is a fine meshwork-like structure in the brain which acts like a filter that allows only selective substances to cross through and enter the brain. This structure is called the blood-brain barrier. Dopamine itslef cannot cross this barrier, but levodopa can. Hence, dopamine itself is never prescribed in PD.
Unfortunately, though the side-effects of these drugs(nausea; postural reduction in blood pressures) are not major, their doses need to be frequently regulated. The quantity of each dose as well as its frequency of repetition keeps increasing lifelong.
These medicines nevertheless allow persons suffering to extend the period for which they can lead a normal life.
Dopamine agonists: though not levodopa, these drugs mimic the action of levodopa and cause neurons to behave as though they are receiving dopamine.

This class of drugs includes:
Bromocriptine (Parlodel),
Apomorphine (Apokyn),
Pramipexole (Mirapex) and
Selegiline: This drug helps prevent the breakdown of dopamine.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase: These drugs prolong the actions of levodopa and carbidopa by preventing an enzyme from breaking down dopamine.
Anticholinergics: These are used to control the tremors. But, often the side effects (loss of memory, hallucinations, confusions, dry mouth, nausea, urine retention, severe constipation) make their use undesirable.
Amantadine: Provides short-term relief from early, mild Parkinson’s disease. Side-effects (swollen ankles, purple mottling of skin) are not very severe.
Co-enzyme Q10: The majority of the energy utilized by the cell is produced within the mitochondria. This is a substance present within the mitochondria of the cells. Co-enzyme Q10 is responsible for electron transport by which the cell derives energy from Oxygen during respiration. Surgery
Thalotomy: destroys a few tissues within the thalamus (a major centre in the brain handling the relay of messages and transmitting sensations. This procedure reduces tremors in some people. Though, it can cause slurring of speech and lack of coordination in movements.
Pallidotomy: this procedure consists of removing tissues within the pallidus (a part of the brain responsible for causing PD). Tremors, rigidity and slowness of movements are all controlled by this procedure. Though the procedure provides relief, the effects are not long-lasting and the condition usually recurs. Slurred speech, vision problems, severe weaknesses are some of the side-effects.
Deep brain stimulation: A small device that transmits electrical impulses is planted deep within the brain from where it stimulates the sub-thalamic nucleus which controls many motor functions. This procedure however runs the risk of developing a bleed (hemorrhage) like a stroke. There are high incidences of developing an infection as well. Hence, this procedure is a last option.
Certain changes in diet and life style can go a long way in improving a persons coping skills with PD.
Healthy eating
Eat more of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

These foods are high in fiber, which is important for helping prevent constipation. Also, drink plenty of water and increase fibre intake through supplements.
Healthy Exercise
Regular exercise is extremely important if you have Parkinson’s disease. It helps improve mobility, balance, range of motion and even emotional well-being. Your doctor or physical therapist may recommend a formal exercise program, but any physical activity, including walking, swimming or gardening, is beneficial. Weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging and dancing, may be helpful.

Keep in mind that your energy level may go up and down, and you’ll sometimes need to pace yourself. If you’re tired, try doing one part of your routine at one time of day and adding another segment later. Choose a time to exercise when your medicines are working well and you feel strong.

Be sure to stretch before and after you exercise. Stretching warms up your muscles, helps prevent stiffness, and improves your flexibility and balance.
Walking with care
Parkinson’s disease can disturb your sense of balance, making it difficult to walk with a normal gait. These suggestions may help:
If you notice yourself shuffling, slow down and check your posture. It’s best to stand up straight with your head over your hips and your feet eight to 10 inches apart.
Buy a good pair of walking shoes. Avoid running shoes.
Practice taking long steps and exaggerate lifting your legs and swinging your arms.
If you become stuck in place — known as freezing ¾ rock gently from side to side or pretend you’re stepping over an object on the floor.
Avoiding falls
In the later stages of the disease, you may fall more easily. That’s because Parkinson’s disease affects the balance and coordination centers in the brain. In fact, you may be thrown off balance by just a small push or bump. The following suggestions may help:
Ask your doctor or physical therapist about exercises that improve balance, especially Tai chi. originally developed in China more than 1,000 years ago, tai chi uses slow, graceful movements to relax and strengthen muscles and joints.
Wear rubber-soled shoes. They’re less likely to slip than are shoes with leather soles.
Remove all area rugs from your home and make sure carpeting is secured firmly to the floor.
Install handrails, especially along stairways.
Keep electrical and telephone cords out of the way.
Install grab bars around your tub and beside the toilet.
Make sure you can reach the telephone from your bed and carry a cordless phone with you during the day.
Dressing can be the most frustrating of all activities for someone with Parkinson’s disease. The loss of fine motor control makes it hard to button and zip clothes, and even to step into a pair of pants. A physical therapist can point out techniques that make daily activities easier. These suggestions also may help:
Allow plenty of time so you don’t feel rushed.
Lay clothes nearby.
Choose clothes that you can slip on easily, such as sweat pants, simple dresses or pants with elastic waistbands.
Look for clothes and shoes with fabric fasteners, such as Velcro, or replace buttons on clothes you have with fabric fasteners.
Even in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your voice may become very soft or hoarse. To communicate more easily:
Face the person you’re talking to, and deliberately speak louder than you think is necessary.
Practice reading or reciting out loud, focusing on your breathing and on having a strong voice.
Speak for yourself — don’t let others speak for you.
Consult a speech-language pathologist who is trained to treat people with Parkinson’s disease.
Movement Therapies
May help people with Parkinson’s improve motor skills and balance, and help them walk better.
Music therapy: A recent study showed symptoms improved with music and dance therapy compared to physical therapy
Alexander Technique: emphasizes posture and balance. May help improve mobility and gait
Feldenkrais Method: aims to re-educate the body about movements that are difficult. May improve gait
Nutritional supplements:
Many supplements may interact with medications you take for Parkinson’s, or may only be effective at particular doses, do not take any supplements, even vitamins, without your doctor’s guidance.
Homeopathic Treatment for Parkinson’s disease:
Our experience based on about 10 cases of Parkinson’s disease (as on April, 2008), is suggestive of encouraging results. At this point, we recommend homeopathy in the early cases and also those cases where the conventional treatment has either not helped at all or has helped partially.



PCOD (Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease) or PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome) is a disease characterized by multiple (‘poly’) cysts (small sacs filled with fluid) in the ovaries.
Patients with PCOD have abnormal levels of hormones that result in irregular menses, infertility and certain masculine changes in the body.
PCOS problems are caused by hormone changes hormonal imbalance. One hormone change triggers another, which changes another.
Raised levels of Testosterone – Androgens or “male hormones,” although all women make small amounts of androgens….Higher than normal androgen levels in women can prevent the ovaries from releasing an egg (ovulation) during each menstrual cycle. Excess androgen produced by the theca cells of the ovaries, due either to hyperinsulinemia or increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels.
Raised levels of Luteinising Hormone (LH) – Due to increased production from the anterior pituitary.This stimulates ovulation but may have an abnormal effect on the ovaries if levels are too high.
low levels of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) – A protein in the blood, which binds to testosterone and reduces the effect of testosterone.
Raised levels of Prolactin – Hormone that stimulates the breast glands to produce milk in pregnancy.
High levels of Insulin (a hormone that helps convert sugars and starches into energy) If you have insulin resistance, your ability to use insulin effectively is impaired, and also your pancreas has to secrete more insulin to make glucose available to cells (so, hyperinsulinaemia) Excess insulin might also affect the ovaries by increasing androgen production, which may interfere with the ovaries’ ability to ovulate.
A significant hereditary component, if your mother or sister has PCOS, you’re more likely to have it.
If you’re overweight, your chances of developing it are greater. As weight gain increases insulin resistance. Fatty tissues are hormonally active and they produce estrogen which disrupts ovulation.
PCOD Symptoms:
Generally, the patient presents with the following symptoms:
Various hormones of the body operate in harmony to regularize smooth functioning of all systems including the reproductive system.
The disturbance of hormonal mechanism makes the ovaries produce excessive amount of the male reproductive hormones (androgens) and at the same time, there is failure of egg formation. This excess of androgens with absence of ovulation may cause infertility.
With this understanding, that the disturbed hormonal functioning of the body lies at the root of PCOD, it can be easily perceived that this constitutional disorder will require constitutional approach towards its rectification.

The homeopathic approach towards management of PCOD is constitutional, taking into account the presenting complaints along with physical, mental and genetic make-up that individualizes a person. Homeopathic medicines which act at root level can bring back deviations of hormonal system back to normalcy and in many cases abolish the need for exogenous hormones with their side-effects and complicate surgical procedures. Moreover, with this hormonal harmony, chances of conception increase significantly.
Typical medical history: Regular/ irregular menstrual cycles, heavy/scanty menstrual flow, the need to take hormonal tablets (progestins) to induce a period etc.
Physical Signs: Often obese and may have hirsutism, (excessive facial and body hair) as a result of the high androgen levels.
Diagnosis can be confirmed by vaginal Ultrasound (USG pelvis): Shows that both the ovaries are enlarged; the bright central stroma is increased, and there are multiple small cysts in the ovaries. These cysts are usually arranged in the form of a necklace along the periphery of the ovary
Blood levels of hormones:
High LH (luteinizing hormone) level; and a Normal FSH level (follicle stimulating hormone) i.e. a reversal of the LH: FSH ratio, which is normally 1:1.
Elevated levels of androgens (a high dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) level);
Fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels;
Glucose tolerance test.
Polycystic ovarian disease is a common hormonal disorder found in one out of 10 women. Women suffer from irregular menses, unusual hair growth on the body and most of them gain weight too. Others may not show any symptoms and have a normal body type along with small cysts in the ovaries. Females are noted to have a predisposition to PCOD or it may also run into families. A right diet with adequate exercise has shown great results in PCOD recovery.
The do’s and don’ts in a PCOD diet:
Diet should be dominated with lots of fruits and vegetables on a daily basis. Avoid dairy products as much as possible.
Lean cuts of chicken and fish can be taken. But avoid red meat.
Hydrate yourself well by having minimum 2-3 liters water/day, coconut water, buttermilk, vegetable soups and smoothies. Avoid aerated drinks and sugary foods.
Eat unsaturated fats and delete saturated and hydrogenated fats from your diet. Always check the label of the product while buying them.
Binge on whole wheat products like wheat pasta, wheat poha and avoid maida, suji
Brown rice in and white rice should be out of your diet. Red rice is also found to be rich in antioxidants which can be used as a substitute for white rice.
Include natural herbs in your diet like flax seeds, methi seeds, coriander, cinnamon.
Include millets like barley, ragi, quinoa, and oats. They are known to cool your body.
Say Yes to walnuts, almonds and no to cashews
Whole pulses like skinned green moong dal, chana dal, yellow moong dal, whole pulses to be included in various preparations.

Eat small meals frequently throughout the day, maintain a low salt diet to avoid water retention. So it is a ‘Yes’ to salads and ‘No’ to pickles and papads.
Exercise for 30- 40 minutes daily (Brisk walking, yoga and meditation)
Never skip your breakfast. Avoid junk, carry home food whenever and whenever possible. Sleep right and avoid stress. There may be individual variations in diet as per the state of health.
The human body has been perfectly enabled by nature to keep itself disease free. It is only when the immunity or its own internal vitality is deranged that the body becomes incapable of keeping itself disease free. Therefore Homeopathy tries to restore the balance of that vitality. Once the vitality regains its original balance, it is able to nurse itself back to health without any external aid.
Homeopathic medicines correct the hormonal imbalance & neutralize its negative effects.
The cysts dissolve gradually can be checked in the next f/u after 3-6 month of starting the treatment, by repeating the USG pelvis.
The menstrual cycle gets regularized. Other complaints, including acne and hair growth on the face, are also taken care.
Opens the possibility of becoming fertile in the future for women to bear pregnancy.
Menses are suppressed, scanty or short and that appear too late.
The character of menstrual blood is dark, black, pale, clotted or highly changeable.
The peculiar constitutional symptoms for use of Pulsatilla are a mild, gentle, sensitive, emotional nature in women,
A tendency to weep and timidity.
A lack of thirst and need for open air.
Facial hair appears especially on the chin and upper lip.
Irregular, feeble menses or suppressed periods.
Menstrual irregularity is an intense bearing down sensation in the pelvis.
Indifference to family members
Irritability, aversion to occupation, sadness.
Hair growth on the face and body and retarded periods of scanty duration. During periods, pain may be felt in the left ovary.
Other homeopathic medicines useful in PCOD:
Lifestyle changes:
Weight loss
Low-calorie diet
Moderate exercise activities
Medications (Hormone Therapy):
To regulate your menstrual cycle.
a) Combination birth control pills — pills that contain both Estrogen and Progestin.
b) Progesterone for 10 to 14 days every one to two months.
c) Metformin, an oral medication for type 2 diabetes that improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin levels.
To help you ovulate:
If you’re trying to become pregnant
a) Clomiphene (Clomid, Serophene) is an oral anti-estrogen medication to take in the first part of your menstrual cycle.
b) Metformin may be added to help induce ovulation.
c) Gonadotropins — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) medications, administered by injection.
d) Letrozole works to stimulate the ovaries.
To reduce excessive hair growth:
a) Birth control pills to decrease androgen production
b) Spironolactone that blocks the effects of androgens on the skin.
b) Eflornithine is another medication possibility; the cream slows facial hair growth in women.
Laparoscopic Ovarian Cauterisation or
Ovarian Drilling or
LEOS (laparoscopic electrocauterisation of ovarian stroma).
This should be reserved for women with PCOD who have large ovaries with increased stroma on ultrasound scanning.
Destroying the abnormal ovarian tissue helps to restore normal ovarian function and helps to induce ovulation.


Pemphigus Vulgaris is a serious skin disease. Relatively, it is a rare disease, which is characterized by formation of blisters and erosions of the skin and mucus membranes. The blisters are often called as bulla or bullae, which are filled with thin, watery fluid; which eventually burst, slough off and lead to sore spots. It can affect mouth, genitals and any part of skin. It is most commonly observed in middle-aged or older people. It is a chronic and recurring disease. It is not a contagious disease; does not spread by touch or air.

Pemphigus is understood to be an auto-immune disease; though, the exact cause remains ill-understood. IN pemphigus, body’s immune system fails to recognize body’s own protein called desmoglein protein, and reacts in the form of severe inflammation, blister formation, pain and soreness.

01 Autoimmunity – Pemphigus Vulgaris is an autoimmune disease.
02 It can be the result of prolonged use of certain medications like Penicillamine (antibiotic), Blood pressure medications called ACE inhibitors and Chelating agents. Usually, this variety of pemphigus tends to recover in most cases on stopping the medicines.
Autoimmunity is the process in which body produces antibodies against normal cells and proteins of the body. In case of Pemphigus Vulgaris, body’s immune system produces antibodies against specific proteins called desmogleins in the skin and mucus membranes. These proteins bind skin cells together. Antibodies, which are formed against these proteins, break the bonds between skin cells. This pathology leads to formation of blisters.

Most commonly affected areas are mouth, scalp and trunk.
Painful blisters and sores in the mouth, followed by blisters on skin.
Peeling of skin
Crust formation
It is best diagnosed clinically by an experienced eye.
Nikolsky’s sign – When the surface of unaffected area is rubbed with finger or cotton, the skin separates easily. This is called as positive Nikolsky’s sign.
Skin or oral biopsy – It shows intra-epidermal vesicle caused by breaking of epidermal cells.
ELISA test – Anti Desmoglein antibodies can be detected in the blood using this test.
Treatment Options for Pemphigus Vulgaris
Conventional treatment:

It includes use of following medicines.
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Homeopathic Treatment:
Homeopathy aims at addressing the underlying process and after effect of auto-immune activity. The results with homeopathy may not be as drastic and quick as probably with the use of cortisone. However, homeopathy is strongly indicated in most cases of pemphigus as a support measure, which helps not only to manage the disease better, but also helps to reduce the dependency of cortisone.

Peptic Ulcer

Ulcerations (sores) in the lining of upper part of the digestive tract are known as Peptic Ulcers. The ulcers may exist in the lower part of food pipe (oesophagus), in the stomach or in the initial part of the intestine (duodenum). About 10% of all adults are affected with Peptic ulcers at some time in their life. The incidence of Peptic ulcers is more common in males as compared to females.
Causes of Peptic Ulcer:
The underlying process that results in Peptic ulcer formation is excess of acid production in the stomach and damage to the protective barrier inside the stomach. Certain things that can trigger excess acid production or can cause damage to the protective lining of the stomach are:
Emotional stress
Foods (spices, pungent foods, etc)
Overuse of certain drugs, especially NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
Infections (H-Pylori)
Types of Peptic Ulcers:
Peptic ulcers usually run a chronic course and complaints tend to be episodic in nature; the patient is usually free from the symptoms in between these episodes. Some of the common symptoms of Peptic ulcers are:
Pain in the epigastrium (upper part of abdomen)
Hunger pain- worsening of pain when the stomach is empty
Night pain- wakes the patient from sleep
Water brash
Loss of appetite (anorexia)
Haematemesis (vomiting of blood)
Dark or black stools
The pain is usually relieved by taking some food, milk, antacids, by belching or vomiting.
Diagnosis of Peptic ulcers is confirmed by:
Endoscopy to evaluate ulcers
Biopsy may be required
Barium meal (double contrast)
Stool examination
Complete blood count
Perforation of ulcer
Gastric outlet obstruction (obstruction in terminal part of stomach)
Things to avoid in case of Peptic ulcer disease:
Spicy foods, pungent things
Excess of alcohol
Oily foods
Heavy meals
Allopathic painkillers
Above all avoid worrying!
Homeopathic treatment of Peptic Ulcers:
Peptic ulcer disease is a constitutional disease that finds its local expression at the level of the digestive system. Being a constitutional disorder, it calls for constitutional approach towards treatment. Homeopathic approach towards the management of Peptic ulcer disease involves the evaluation of the complaint in details while taking into account individual factors such as one’s personal and family history while planning a long-term treatment. Since the treatment targets the root cause, Homeopathy offers long-term cure instead of temporary relief. It treats at a deeper level of immunity and enhances the healing capacity of the body. Homeopathy can also help to prevent complications of Peptic ulcers.
Homeopathic Remedies for Peptic ulcer
Peptic ulcer could be in the duodenum (Duodenal ulcer, DU) or in the the stomach (gastric ulcer). Based on the symptoms and by endoscopy we can diagnose the location of ulcer. The homeopathic medicines for peptic ulcer are many, one has to select based on the exact diagnosis and individual symptoms; including the personally type of the patient.
Graphites: This homeopathic medicines sourced from the mineral is a powerful remedy for all kinds of ulcers in stomach, intestines, as well as on the skin. The patient may feel pain in stomach after about two hours of food, a sign of gastric ulcer, requiring Graphites. There may be dislike for sweets, sensitivity to cold air, dryness and roughness of skin, tendency to ulcer and scar formation, associated eczema or such skin disease, irregular menses in females; apart from the clinical symptoms belonging to the stomach ulcer.
Phosphorus: A popular homeopathic medicine, very effective for diseases of esophagus, stomach, jejunum, intestines and colon, this medicine works very well when indications match. Burning pain in upper abdomen, sinking feeling, emptiness in stomach, losing weight in spite of eating well, sensitive to cold air, kind hearted personality, cares for others, friendly and talkativeness, etc. are some of the features indicating the need for Phosphorus.



As they one can have allergy or sensitivity to anything under the sun, including the sun. Yes, there is a disease in which one tends to be allergic or sensitive to sunlight. That is called Photodermatitis or photosensitivity.
What is Photodermatitis?
It is a skin disorder where the skin abnormally responds to the sunlight, especially the Ultra-violate (UV) rays, which lead to rash on skin. The skin rash could lead to itching, burning and swelling. This can lead to darkening of the skin subsequently.
Causes of Photodermatitis
The main cause behaving Photodermatitis is body’s inherent tendency to react to sunlight. There are some chemicals and medicines which may make one prone to have such hyper-sensitive, which include certain antibiotics, anti-diabetic drugs, psoralens, coal tars (used for psoriasis), salicylanilide (industrial chemical). Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can also trigger photosensitivity.
What are the symptoms of Photodermatitis?

As written earlier, the symptoms of Photodermatitis include rash on the sun-exposed areas such as face, arms, hands, back or all over the body (in case of sub-bathing). Reddening of skin with itching, mild scaling, burring and pain are common symptoms. In some cases there could be mild, thin, watery discharge. The skin tends to turn dark or black subsequently in many patients, especially on face. Darkening of the skin may not disappear on stopping of exposure to sun, unfortunately.
Treatment for Photodermatitis
There are some homeopathic medicines, which help to recover from severe forms of Photodermatitis and its after effects such as hyper-pigmentation. Most importantly, homeopathic medicines taken over some time, may reduce sensitivity of skin to sun exposure. We have also observed reduction in darkening of skin after using homeopathic medicine. Homeopathy is strongly recommended in the cases of Photodermatitis or photosensitivity. The medicines in homeopathy for Photodermatitis are better selected and prescribed on the basis of individual patient’s case totality.


Piles (Haemorrhoids) are swollen and inflamed blood vessels (veins) in the rectum and anus. Piles are broadly classified as follows:
External: Piles that are outside the anal verge
Internal: Piles that occur inside the rectum
Causes of Piles:
These include the following:
Genetic predisposition (weak rectal veins, walls)
Poor muscle tone in the rectal region
Sedentary lifestyle
Chronic cough
Overuse of laxatives or enemas
Lifting heavy weights habitually
Symptoms of Piles:

Symptoms vary depending upon the site of piles, duration of complaints and general health of the person.
External piles present as a swelling outside the anus with irritation and itching. These can be painful sometimes and usually do not bleed.
Internal piles are usually not painful but these bleed when they are irritated such as during the passage of hard stools. They can be classified into four grades:
Grade 1 piles are small swellings on the inside lining of the anus. They cannot be seen or felt from outside the anus.
Grade 2 piles are partly pushed out (prolapse) from the anus when you go to the toilet, but quickly ‘retract back’ inside again.
Grade 3 piles hang out (prolapse) from the anus and are felt as one or more small, soft lumps that hang from the anus. However, they can be pushed back inside the anus with a finger.
Grade 4 piles permanently hang down from within the anus, and cannot be pushed back inside. They can sometimes become quite large.
Some of the other symptoms generally associated with piles are:
Protrusion of piles outside the anus; this usually occurs after defecation, prolonged standing or unusual physical exertion

Bleeding from the anus: This can occur before, during or after stools. This will be bright red blood, not usually mixed with the stools, but often seen on the toilet paper.
Soreness, pain, itching in the anal region
In case of profuse bleeding that is chronic, the patient may be anemic
Sensation of something coming down, or a bulge or lump at the anus
If the piles outside the anus develop a blood clot inside, (thrombosed piles) it leads to a particularly tender, hard lump
Homeopathic piles treatment:
Homeopathic medicines are very effective in management of piles and the symptoms associated with it such as pain, bleeding, itching, etc. The point to be emphasized is that the relief of symptoms is obtained with absolute gentleness and without invasion or surgery of any kind. Moreover, the condition has high relapse rate following surgical treatment, since surgery does not target the root causes like genetic tendencies, habitual constipation, etc. Homeopathic medicines work at the root level and can modify these genetic tendencies thus reducing chances of relapse and recurrence of the condition significantly. Grade 1 and 2 of internal piles treatment can be significantly helped with homeopathy. Grade 3 piles can find some relief of symptoms with homeopathy but may not be completely cured. Grade 4 piles can get symptomatic relief with medicines.
Homeopathic Remedies for Piles:
The most commonly used homeopathic remedies for piles (Hemorrhoids) include:
Aloes: Sore pain in the anal area & pain in the pelvic region can be controlled with this remedy. Burning sensation in the rectum while passing stools can be controlled effectively with this remedy.
Muriatic acid: Treatment In extreme cases of Piles where the person cannot bear touch, here muriatic acid is used to get relief. It is used in case of large, swollen, purple or blue hemorrhoids.
Sulphur: It is one of the useful remedies for controlling major symptoms of internal and external Piles. Itching, burning, pain in the anal area can be controlled with this medicine.
Arsenic album: For patients who experience burning sensation while walking or standing, or those with swollen, bluish piles with lot of bleeding are treated with this remedy.
Aesculus Hippocastanum: This homeopathic medicine works better for patients with pain in back due to Hemorrhoids.
Calcarea fluorica: Internal piles with itching and bleeding in the anal area are treated with this medicine.
Graphites: This remedy works well for cases with cracks, soreness and itching around the anal area.
Hamamelis: This is one of the important remedies used to control bleeding caused due to Piles. Pain in lower back and pulsation in rectum can also be controlled with this remedy.
Nux vomica: Patient with painful itching and constipation can be treated with this remedy.
Tips on how to prevent piles
Piles if not controlled in time can create problems in the long run, follow the tips below for preventing piles.
Increase intake of fluids (Juices & Water)
High fiber diet
Exercise regularly
Sit in warm water tub for minimum 10 minutes
Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables
Avoid processed foods
Control your weight
Avoid too much of alcohol
Quit smoking


Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis is the condition mostly found in the middle aged people. This condition compels you to leave all your work except for lying in the bed. In this blog we will discuss about the causes, symptoms and ways to deal with plantar Fasciitis.
What is Plantar Fasciitis?
Inflammation of the plantar fascia is known as the Plantar Fasciitis. Plantar fascia is the band of tissue running in the bottom of the foot connecting the bones in the heels to the big toe.
What are the causes of Plantar Fasciitis?
Continuous stretching and irritation of plantar fascia gives rise to Plantar Fasciitis. Plantar fascia works as a shock absorber for your foot. It also supports the natural arch of the foot. When there is excessive tension and stretching of the plantar fascia due to various reasons, small tears develop in them. These tears in the fascia make them irritated and inflamed and cause Plantar Fasciitis.
What are the symptoms of Plantar Fasciitis?
Patient suffering from Plantar Fasciitis can have pain and stiffness in the bottom of the foot while taking first few steps in the morning after getting up from the bed or walking after sitting or standing for a long period of time. After first few steps the pain gradually subsides and it returns when you start using your foot after a long period of inertia.
Who is at risk of developing the Plantar Fasciitis?
Following factors influence the development of Plantar Fasciitis.
Age: People between the age group of 4o to 60 years are at higher risk of developing Plantar Fasciitis.
Runners: In athletes like long distance runners, there is continuous pressure on their feet. This puts continuous pressure and a stretch on their plantar fascia leading to plantar Fasciitis.
Professional hazard: Certain professions like that of a teacher, people working as sales executives in malls or big shopping centers are required to stand for long hours. Such people are at higher risk of developing Plantar Fasciitis.
Type of feet: Those people who have high arches in their foot and those with totally flat feet are at higher risk of developing Plantar Fasciitis. As both these conditions put added pressure on the plantar fascia.
Obesity: Obese people tend to get this condition because of the heavy weight puts pressure on the plantar fascia.
Pregnancy: In pregnant women also tend to suffer from this condition due to weight gain during pregnancy.
How Plantar Fasciitis is different from Calcaneal spur?
In Calcaneal spur also people get similar kinds of symptoms but both the conditions are different. Calcaneal spur is the bony projection of the heel bone while Plantar Fasciitis results due to the overstretching and irritation of the plantar fascia.
X-rays of the feet can confirm the diagnosis.
What are the treatment options for Plantar Fasciitis?
Rest and ice fomentation on the foot relieves the pain of Plantar Fasciitis. Non- steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs reduce the inflammation of the plantar fascia and relieve the pain and stiffness.
Exercises for plantar Fasciitis: Following exercises are highly recommended for the patients of the Plantar Fasciitis. They help in improving the muscles strength of the feet and thereby help in a long run.
Toe stretch:
Step 1: Sit on a chair. Extend the affected leg. Ensure that the ankle remains in touch with the ground.
Step 2: Stretch the big toe up towards the ankle using your hand, hold it in that position for 15 to 30 seconds and release it back. Do this 5 times in one session and repeat such sessions at least 4 times in a day.
Towel stretch:
Step 1: Sit on a bed or floor. Place a rolled towel under the ball of the foot. Keep both ends of the towel in your hands.
Step 2: keeping the knees straight, gently pull the towel, hold for 15 to 30 seconds and then release. Repeat this, do 5 times in one session. Repeat this exercise at least 4 times in a day.
What are the other options apart from the physical exercises?
Following measures should be followed apart from exercises.
Avoid walking barefoot on the hard surfaces. Use soft slippers when you are indoors.
Change the old shoes. Use the shoes which give a good support to your arch. Use of insoles (shoe inserts or heel cups) is recommended for better arch support.
Sometimes when above measures don’t work, doctors give splints which are to be worn at night.
Lastly, steroid injections are given in the heels for obtaining relief.
Very rarely when all the measures fail to relieve pain of Plantar Fasciitis, surgery is recommended by the doctor.



Polymyositis is a chronic and difficult disease condition calling for long-term planning treatment. As the name suggests, it is poly=many, myco=muscles, sitis=inflammation. That is, a disease condition where many muscles get inflamed. It is similar to another condition called dermatomyositis, where skin is also involved.
Symptoms of Polymyositis:
Females are affected more than men. Usually, it starts after around 18 years. Patients present with muscular weakness in the legs, spreading to upper limbs and then eventually to entire body. There is a sense of tiredness or fatigue, due to muscle involvement. Patients also complain of painful body movement due to inflammation of muscles. Increasing difficulty in getting up, running, climbing staircase, and eventually day to day activities, forms a major symptom of this disease.
Polymyositis is a progressive condition, where more and more groups of muscles tend to get involved, leading to restricted mobility and increasing painfulness. It does not have a tendency to go into natural remission, as recorded in the cases at Life force.
Polymyositis is not a common disease, fortunately.
Causes of Polymyositis:
The exact cause behind Polymyositis is not yet known. However, it falls in the category of auto-immune disease. It is also suspected to have some genetic links. Certain infections such as virus, parasites (protozoa), Lyme disease, etc. might trigger Polymyositis.
Recent studies indicated involvement of certain immunological parameter such as some cytokines (IFN-gamma) and IL 2, etc. which are released after microvascular muscle injury.That, in turn, lead to activation of some other cytokines such as TNF-alpha, which is also responsible for continued and recurring inflammation of the muscles. All in all, polymyositis is a multifactorial disorder, where genetic, immunological and other factors are involved. Homeopathic treatment tries to address multiple factors and bring about control of the disease processes as well relief in the symptoms.
How is Polymyositis diagnosed?
Clinical diagnosis supported by one or more of the following investigations would help to confirm the diagnosis of Polymyositis:
High blood levels certain enzyme called CPK (Creatine Phospho-Kinase)
Muscle biopsy
Treatment of Polymyositis:
a Conventional treatment: There is hardly any treatment except the use of cortisone and immunosuppressive medicines used conventionally. Also, physiotherapy and such supportive measures are useful.
Homeopathic treatment for Polymyositis:
Experience suggests that homeopathy has reasonably good treatment to offer for Polymyositis, which works at two levels:
1 Controls further progress of disease
2Improves the symptoms of pain, fatigue and mobility
Cases treated at Life Force are suggestive of definite contribution in the treatment of Polymyositis, where patients have documented improvement without use of cortisone. Homeopathy may not cure the Polymyositis but even if improvement as stated above is considered significant for a disease such as this. Homeopathy is strongly suggested for Polymyositis.


Post Herpes Neuralgia

What is Post Herpetic Neuralgia?
Post herpetic neuralgia is a nerve disease occurs after an attack of herpes zoster infection. Herpes zoster or ‘shingles’ is a viral infection which affects the skin, especially sides of the chest, caused by varicella zoster virus. This is the same virus which causes chicken pox in children.
After an episode of herpes, the virus remains dormant in the nerve tissues of the body. This virus may become active when the immunity of the individual reduces or during convalescence after a major illness, resulting in blisters on the skin, known as shingles. It is accompanied with a rash which disappears without major consequences in about two to four weeks. Around 50% of individuals with shingles go on to develop post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) or after-shingles pain.
The neuralgia begins when the herpetic eruptions begin to heal. The pain appears usually in the affected dermatone or the affected nerve course and results in severe pain in the region which has the same nerve supply. The pain is a drawing, pricking type of intense pain, sometimes accompanied with burning sensation of the skin. The pain lasts from a few weeks to few months, rarely years.
Causes/risk factors
Severe rash within three days of shingles infection
A study shows that, 65% of patients were women
The chances of developing PHN, increases when the shingles occurs in persons over 50 years.
The incidence of herpes zoster is up to 15 times higher in HIV-infected patients than in uninfected persons, and as many as 25 percent of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma develop herpes zoster.
Blacks are one fourth as likely as whites to develop this condition.
Site of HZ involvement
Lower risk – Jaw, neck, sacral, and lumbar
Moderate risk – Thoracic
Highest risk – Trigeminal (especially ophthalmic division), brachial plexus
Signs and symptoms
A pain that continues for 3 months or more, after the healing of shingles, is defined as PHN.
PHN pain may be burning, aching, itching and sharp and the pain can be constant or it can come and go
The skin which was affected with blisters, may show scarring
The involved deramatome may show altered sensations, either hypersensitivity or reduced sensitivity.
In rare cases,where if the nerves involved also control muscle movement, the patient might also experience muscle weakness, tremor or paralysis
The conventional treatment is directed at pain control while waiting for the condition to resolve. Pain therapy may include multiple interventions, such as topical medications, over-the-counter analgesics, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and a number of non medical modalities. Occasionally, narcotics may be required.
Homeopathic approach
Homeopathy works well in cases of neuralgias. Homeopathic medicines have proven efficacy in the treatment of all sorts of neuralgia which include Post herpatic Neuralgia, Trigeminal Neuralgia, etc.


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) has a wide variety of symptoms, including mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, irritability and depression. It’s estimated that as many as 3 of every 4 menstruating women have experienced some form of premenstrual syndrome.
Symptoms tend to recur in a predictable pattern. But the physical and emotional changes you experience with premenstrual syndrome may vary from just slightly noticeable all the way to intense.
Still, you don’t have to let these problems control your life. Treatments and lifestyle adjustments can help you reduce or manage the signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
The list of potential signs and symptoms for premenstrual syndrome is long, but most women only experience a few of these problems.
Emotional and behavioural symptoms
Tension or anxiety
Depressed mood
Crying spells
Mood swings and irritability or anger
Appetite changes and food cravings
Trouble falling asleep (insomnia)
Social withdrawal
Poor concentration

Physical signs and symptoms
Joint or muscle pain
Weight gain related to fluid retention
Abdominal bloating
Breast tenderness
Acne flare-ups
Constipation or diarrhea

Exactly what causes premenstrual syndrome is unknown, but several factors may contribute to the condition:
Cyclic changes in hormones. Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome change with hormonal fluctuations and disappear with pregnancy and menopause.
Chemical changes in the brain. Fluctuations of serotonin, a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) that is thought to play a crucial role in mood states, could trigger PMS symptoms. Insufficient amounts of serotonin may contribute to premenstrual depression, as well as to fatigue, food cravings and sleep problems.
Depression. Some women with severe premenstrual syndrome have undiagnosed depression, though depression alone does not cause all of the symptoms.


Psoriasis is a genetically programmed inflammatory disease that primarily affects the skin in about 3% of individuals in the United States. Psoriasis is characterized by skin cells that multiply up to 10 times faster than normal. When these cells reach the surface and die, raised, red plaques covered with white scales form. Psoriasis begins as a small scaling papule. When multiple papules coalesce, they form scaling plaques. These plaques tend to occur in the scalp, elbows, and knees.
Psoriasis Symptoms
Although psoriatic plaques can be limited to only a few small areas, the condition can involve widespread areas of skin anywhere on the body. Psoriasis symptoms vary depending on the type of psoriasis you have. Common psoriasis symptoms can include the following:
Red patches of skin covered with silvery scales
Small scaling spots
Dry, cracked skin
Itching, burning, or soreness
Itchy plaques
Small bleeding points when the scale is peeled away
Types of Psoriasis

Plaque Psoriasis
Plaque psoriasis is the most common type of psoriasis and it gets its name from the plaques that build up on the skin. There tend to be well-defined patches of red raised skin that can appear on any area of the skin, but the knees, elbows, scalp, trunk, and nails are the most common locations. There is also a flaky, white build up on top of the plaques, called scales. Possible plaque psoriasis symptoms include skin pain, itching, and cracking.
There are plenty of over-the-counter products that are effective in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. 1% hydrocortisone cream is a topical steroid that can suppress mild disease and preparations containing tar are effective in treating plaque psoriasis.
Scalp Psoriasis
Scalp psoriasis is a common skin disorder that makes raised, reddish, often scaly patches. Scalp psoriasis can affect your whole scalp, or just pop up as one patch. This type of psoriasis can even spread to the forehead, the back of the neck, or behind the ears. Scalp psoriasis symptoms may include only slight, fine scaling. Moderate to severe scalp psoriasis symptoms may include dandruff-like flaking, dry scalp, and hair loss. Scalp psoriasis does not directly cause hair loss, but stress and excess scratching or picking of the scalp may result in hair loss.
Scalp psoriasis can be treated with medicated shampoos, creams, gels, oils, ointments, and soaps. Salicylic acid and coal tar are two medications in over-the-counter products that help treat scalp psoriasis. Steroid injections and phototherapy may help treat mild scalp psoriasis. Biologics are the latest class of medications that can also help treat severe scalp psoriasis.
Guttate Psoriasis
Guttate psoriasis looks like small, pink dots or drops on the skin. The word guttate is from the Latin word gutta, meaning drop. There tends to be fine scales with guttate psoriasis that is finer than the scales in plaque psoriasis. Guttate psoriasis is typically triggered by streptococcal (strepthroat) and the outbreak will usually occur two to three weeks after having strep throat.
Guttate psoriasis tends to go away after a few weeks without treatment. Moisturizers can be used to soften the skin. If there is a history of psoriasis, a doctor may take a throat culture to determine if strep throat is present. If the throat culture shows that streptococcal is present, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics.
Nail Psoriasis
Many patients with psoriasis have abnormal nails. Psoriatic nails often have a horizontal white or yellow margin at the tip of the nail called distal onycholysis because the nail is lifted away from the skin. There can often be small pits in the nail plate, and the nail is often yellow and crumbly.
The same treatment for skin psoriasis is beneficial for nail psoriasis. However, since nails grow slow, it may take a while for improvements to be evident. Nail psoriasis can be treated with phototherapy, systemic therapy (medications that spread throughout the body), and steroids (cream or injection). If medications do not improve the condition of nail psoriasis, a doctor may surgically remove the nail.

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic disease characterized by a form of inflammation of the skin and joints. About 15%-25% of patients with psoriasis also develop an inflammation of their joints. Psoriatic arthritis is a systemic rheumatic disease that can not only cause inflammation of the skin, but in the eyes, heart, kidneys, and lungs as well. Currently, the cause of psoriatic arthritis is unknown, but a combination of genetic, immune, and environmental facts is likely involved.
Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms

Typically, a patient will have psoriasis months or years before they develop psoriatic arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis usually involves the knees, ankles, and joints in the feet. There may also be a loss of range of motion of the involved joints as well as joint stiffness. Psoriatic arthritis can also cause inflammation of the spine and the sacrum, which causes pain and stiffness in the low back, buttocks, neck, and upper back.
Psoriatic Arthritis Treatment
Treatment for psoriatic arthritis generally involves anti-inflammatory medications and exercise. It is important to stretch or take a hot shower before exercise in order to relax the muscles. Ice application after exercise can help minimize soreness and inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may also reduce joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.

Causes Psoriasis
It is now clear that there is a genetic basis for psoriasis. This hereditary predisposition is necessary before the disease can be triggered by environmental factors. White blood cells called T-cells mediate the development of the psoriatic plaques that are present in the skin. When someone has psoriasis, their body is unable to offer protection from invaders. Instead, inflammation is promoted and skin cells are on overdrive. When cell growth is increased, old skin cells pile up instead of flaking off, causing psoriasis to occur. Currently, most experts conclude that environmental, genetic and immunologic factors interact to cause the disease.